Minggu, 29 Januari 2017



We will explain the stars in the universe before discussing extraterrestrials. How many stars are there in the universe?

How Many Stars Are In The Universe?
By Elizabeth Howell
It's easier to count stars when they are inside galaxies, since that's where they tend to cluster. To even begin to estimate the number of stars, then you would need to estimate the number of galaxies and come up with some sort of an average.
Some estimates peg the Milky Way's star mass as having 100 billion "solar masses," or 100 billion times the mass of the sun. Averaging out the types of stars within our galaxy, this would produce an answer of about 100 billion stars in the galaxy. This is subject to change, however, depending on how many stars are bigger and smaller than our own sun. Also, other estimates say the Milky Way could have 200 billion stars or more.
The number of galaxies is an astonishing number, however, as shown by some imaging experiments performed by the Hubble Space Telescope. Several times over the years, the telescope has pointed a detector at a tiny spot in the sky to count galaxies, performing the work again after the telescope was upgraded by astronauts during the shuttle era.
A 1995 exposure of a small spot in Ursa Major revealed about 3,000 faint galaxies. In 2003-4, using upgraded instruments, scientists looked at a smaller spot in the constellation Fornax and found 10,000 galaxies. An even more detailed investigation in Fornax in 2012, with even better instruments, showed about 5,500 galaxies.
Kornreich used a very rough estimate of 10 trillion galaxies in the universe. Multiplying that by the Milky Way's estimated 100 billion stars results in a large number indeed: 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars, or a "1" with 24 zeros after it. Kornreich emphasized that number is likely a gross underestimation, as more detailed looks at the universe will show even more galaxies.

Photo by NASA

How Many Stars are There in the Universe?
by Fraser Cain
When we look at the night sky, filled with stars, it’s hard to resist counting. Just with the unaided eye, in dark skies, you can see a few thousand.
How many stars are there in the entire Universe? Before we get to that massive number, let’s consider what you can count with the tools available to you.
Perfect vision in dark skies allows us to see stars down to about magnitude 6. But to really make an accurate census of the total number of stars, you’d need to travel to both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, since only part of the sky is visible from each portion of the Earth. Furthermore, you’d need to make your count over several months, since a portion of the sky is obscured by the Sun. If you had perfect eyesight and traveled to completely dark skies in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, and there was no Moon, you might be able to get to count up almost 9,000 stars.
With a good pair of binoculars, that number jumps to about 200,000, since you can observe stars down to magnitude 9. A small telescope, capable of resolving magnitude 13 stars will let you count up to 15 million stars. Large observatories could resolve billions of stars.
But how many stars are out there? How many stars are there in the Milky Way?
According to astronomers, our Milky Way is an average-sized barred spiral galaxy measuring up to 120,000 light-years across. Our Sun is located about 27,000 light-years from the galactic core in the Orion arm. Astronomers estimate that the Milky Way contains up to 400 billion stars of various sizes and brightness.
A few are supergiants, like Betelgeuse or Rigel. Many more are average-sized stars like our Sun. The vast majority of stars in the Milky Way are red dwarf stars; dim, low mass, with a fraction of the brightness of our Sun.
As we peer through our telescopes, we can see fuzzy patches in the sky which astronomers now know are other galaxies like our Milky Way. These massive structures can contain more or less stars than our own Milky Way.
There are spiral galaxies out there with more than a trillion stars, and giant elliptical galaxies with 100 trillion stars.
And there are tiny dwarf galaxies with a fraction of our number of stars.
So how many galaxies are there?
According to astronomers, there are probably more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable Universe, stretching out into a region of space 13.8 billion light-years away from us in all directions.
And so, if you multiply the number of stars in our galaxy by the number of galaxies in the Universe, you get approximately 1024 stars. That’s a 1 followed by twenty-four zeros.
That’s a septillion stars.

Photo by NASA
If one galaxy there is one life, then in the universe there is life, as much as the number of galaxies. Or 10 trillion galaxies in the universe. This is in accordance with the Qur'an, which reads:

وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ خَلْقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَابَّةٍ وَهُوَ عَلَى جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَاء قَدِير

Translated by Malik:  “Among His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the living creatures that He has spread in both of them: and He is capable of gathering them all together whenever He wants.”
Translated by Pickthall: ”And of His portents is the creation of the heaven and the earth, and of whatever beasts He hath dispersed therein. And He is Able to gather them when He will.”
Translated by Yusuf Ali: “And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth and the living creatures that He has scattered through them: and He has power to gather them together when He wills.”
Of the three translations can be taken one opinion, man for the living on earth and alien beyond the earth (the heaven). Since 1400 years ago, the Qur'an has explained the existence of aliens outside our earth.
Where does the alien live?

Yes, Bacteria Can Live in the Freezer
by Case Adams 
Some time ago someone near to me made the bold statement, ‘bacteria can’t live in the freezer!’ Or something to that effect anyway.
“Sorry, but yes they can,” said I, as I took another bite of my ice cream.
In fact, many of us assume this – that bacteria and other pathogenic microbes – indeed cannot survive in freezing environments. We assume that bacteria cannot survive in frozen food or freezers.
Extremophiles and psychrophiles
Not only are there a whole host of bacteria that regularly dwell in unlikely places. Those that live in very hot or high pressure climes are called extremophiles. And those that live in freezing environments are called psychrophiles. But there are also many species of rigorous pathogenic bacteria living around us in normal climes that will also survive the freezer.
Yes, it appears rare that frozen food will be contaminated. Freezing temperatures certainly dissuade bacterial contamination because these temperatures freeze water, and hydrophilic (water loving) bacteria need water to be free-flowing to get their hydration needed to form strong biofilms.
And they need to eat too. Frozen environments often limit off available food sources.
But certainly, if there is food available in the form of sugar or other food source, many bacteria can not only survive the freezer, but may colonize within a frozen food.
Now if the food happens to be contaminated before freezing, and that food also supplies the food for bacteria to grow – especially sugar but also dairy or other animal product – that bacteria can live.

Photo by Pauline Mak

What is the hottest temperature life can survive?
By Jasmin Fox-Skelly
In remote eastern Siberia, hundreds of active volcanoes rise above a rocky landscape dotted with thousands of bubbling hot springs.
Russians call the region the ‘land in the making’ because of the rate at which the volcanoes churn out molten rock. That new ‘land’ of the Kamchatka Peninsula is one of the most inhospitable regions on any of Earth’s continents.
But it is not lifeless. In the hot, toxic water of those bubbling springs lurk all manner of strange microbes – some even content to live in water just a shade below 100C.
More of these “extremophiles” are coming to light every few years. This is good news, not just for the scientists who study them, but also for a variety of industrial processes.
Kamchatka is so remote that it takes more than nine hours to fly there from Moscow. It is one of the most volcanically active places on Earth and forms part of the Pacific “Ring of Fire”.
In the hot, toxic water of those bubbling springs lurk all manner of strange microbes
To truly experience the beauty of the region – a UNESCO World Heritage site – you must travel by helicopter. Few scientists have made the journey.
Elizaveta Bonch-Osmolovskaya of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, has been visiting Kamchatka regularly since 1982. Most of her expeditions have been to the Uzon Caldera, a region in Kronotsky National Park that formed when a volcano collapsed 200,000 years ago.
The caldera is now like a bowl ringed by mountains, and it is filled with hundreds of hot springs, geysers and mud pots strewn across five thermal fields and heated by tumultuous geothermal activity deep in the bowels of the Earth.
The rock is rich in arsenic, phosphorus, copper, lead, antimony, and even gold. Geothermal gases, including methane, hydrogen sulphide, nitrogen and carbon dioxide leak out to the Earth’s surface, or bubble up in hot springs.

The place is very dangerous: you can easily fall into the boiling clay or inhale poisonous fumes. But for many microbes this is home – and for biologists who study such extremophiles, Uzon is a perfect place to work.
Most organisms could not survive in the hot springs
The journey to Uzon, by helicopter, takes two hours. “There are no roads,” says Bonch-Osmolovskaya. “Each time we stayed there for one or two weeks, and of course we had to bring everything with us – food, fuel for cooking, laboratory equipment. At first there were two wooden houses for us to stay in, but then they were destroyed and we all lived in tents. Now there is a house again where people can live and work.”
In September 2005, 20 Russian and US scientists travelled together to the Uzon Caldera for a five-year Joint Russian-American expedition headed by Juergen Wiegel from the University of Georgia. Researchers constructed the Kamchatka Microbial Observatory, a natural laboratory for studying extremophiles.
Most organisms could not survive in the hot springs, says Frank Robb at the University of Maryland in Baltimore. “Temperatures at or near boiling basically cook normal biological material and destroy proteins, lipids and genetic material.”
But high temperatures are not the only problem faced by organisms in the springs. Some pools are very acidic, close to pH2, whilst others are very alkaline and go up to pH10.5.
You can easily fall into the boiling clay or inhale poisonous fumes
The waters can be very salty, and many pools are rich in potassium, boric acid, silicic acid and sulphate. There is little oxygen in the pools, as at high temperatures less oxygen can dissolve in water.
Conditions are so challenging that no complex organisms can survive them. Animals generally struggle when they are exposed to temperatures much above 50C – true even of the Pink Pompeii worms that live next to deep-sea hydrothermal vents spewing out water at 400C onto the ocean floor.
Most living creatures that thrive in extremely hot environments are single-celled bacteria or archaea. These are the simplest life forms on Earth, and probably the oldest. They consist of just one cell and lack the more sophisticated cell machinery that more advanced organisms have.

Keen to learn more about the types of creatures found in the boiling pools, and making sure to keep a lookout for the occasional bear, the international team of scientists has collected samples and analysed the DNA they contain for clues to the microbes’ extreme resilience. When exploring the hydrothermal fields, the scientists wore thick rubber boots up to the thigh, just in case they accidentally broke through the crust to the boiling water below.
Many of them can grow using carbon monoxide, which is normally an extremely toxic gas
They found a whole host of microorganisms, including entirely new species never seen before.
Desulfurella acetivorans, for instance, is a bacterium that thrives in pools at 58C. It feeds on organic acetate in the pool. Rather than breathing oxygen, these microbes get their energy from volcanic sulphur through a process known as sulphur reduction.
Then there is Thermoproteus uzoniensis. This new species of archaea was found thriving in the hot springs, steam vents, mud holes and soils in the Uzon Caldera and Geyser Valley.
The rod-shaped microbes can survive in waters close to boiling point by feeding on the fermented remains of organic molecules called peptides. They also use sulphur reduction for energy. Scientists believe that strains of closely related T. uzoniensis are so common across the region because they are being carried between pools by wind, water, birds or even bears.
Acidilobus aceticus is so named because of the extreme acidity – pH2 – of the hot spring in which it was found. The acidic water was also very hot, at 92C. The microbe feeds on fermented starch and, again, uses sulphur to power its metabolism.

It is not just sulphur ‘breathing’ microbes that thrive in hot pools and geysers, though. Bacteria growing on other volcanic gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and iron and nitrates were also found.
The scientists wore thick rubber boots up to the thigh, just in case they accidentally broke through the crust to the boiling water below
“We found a great many different species of thermophilic [heat adapted] bacteria from Kamchatka,” says Robb. “An unusual feature of the system is that many of them can grow using carbon monoxide, which is normally an extremely toxic gas.”
The biggest and hottest pool in the Uzon Caldera is the Bourlyashchy Pool. The name is Russian for ‘bubbling’, and is so called because of the gases that are constantly being released from it.
At 97C it is the hottest thermal environment ever studied for signs of life on land. But in one of the most recent expeditions to the site, researchers found a large number of microbes living there.
Many of the bacteria found in the pool were of the order Aquificales, which have also been found in hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the western US. The microorganisms get their energy from hydrogen in the pool.
Not all of the microbes in Kamchatka are new species. Some have been seen before, in hot springs in Yellowstone, Iceland and New Zealand. These tiny life forms have carved out a niche for themselves in Earth’s hottest and most inhospitable environs, but what allows them to do so?

The bacteria and archaea found in Kamchatka – and in other hot springs around the world – have unique adaptations that allow them to thrive at high temperatures.
The world record for surviving hot temperatures has been raised several times now
Normally the lipid membranes which encase living cells fall apart above 50C, as the ester bonds between the fats break down. Some hot spring microbes get around the problem by using special ether bonds instead of esters, which are sturdier and more robust.
That is just the start, though. Proteins and enzymes that power all the chemical reactions inside cells denature and unravel at high temperatures, as does DNA.
The microbes have found ways to deal with the problem. Special sequences of amino acids appear to reinforce the proteins and protect them, whilst charged particles called ions buried inside the proteins may also make them more stable.
Another weapon in the thermophilic bacteria’s arsenal is a special category of molecules called heat shock proteins. These act as molecular chaperones and prevent proteins that have unravelled from sticking together. They also actively refold proteins that have collapsed from the heat, allowing the proteins to start functioning again.

There is also evidence that proteins in thermophilic microbes are more densely packed and compact than normal, which protects them from unravelling. And there may be extra bonds between different parts of each protein’s intricate 3D structure, helping to make the molecule more stable.
The microbe thrives at 121C and there are claims that it can even survive for two hours at 130C
Together, these strategies allow some microbes to push against the boundaries we once thought were vital for life to survive. The world record for surviving hot temperatures has been raised several times now.
A few years ago it was held by Pyrolobus fumarii, a species of archaea found in a black smoker hydrothermal vent on the ocean floor in the middle of the Atlantic. P. fumarii can live perfectly happily in 113C waters.
Since then, another group of scientists has found a microbe from deep-sea vents that is able to survive at 122C. And there are hints that even this is not the ultimate limit for life.
A new microbe, for now called “Strain 121”, has since been discovered in a thermal vent deep in the Pacific Ocean. The microbe thrives at 121C and there are claims that it can even survive for two hours at 130C. However the finding is still contentious, as the strain has not been made publicly available to study.
“Thermophilic microorganisms have special mechanisms that allow their biopolymers (proteins and nucleic acids) to maintain their structure and functionality at high temperatures,” explains Bonch-Osmolovskaya. “Membranes of thermophiles are also different, those of bacteria contain more saturated fatty acids, while in archaea the stability of membranes is caused by the presence of special lipids called isoprenoid ethers.”

Photo by Igor Shpilenok
From the above information shows that microorganisms that can live in frozen areas and also microorganisms can live in hot areas. Frozen areas and very hot areas, humans can not live. Humans can live in cool area or zone with 20 – 40 degree Celsius. This is in accordance with the Qur'an, which reads:
وَجَعَلْنَا مِنَ الْمَاء كُلَّ شَيْءٍ حَيٍّ أَفَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
“And made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe?”
The Qur'an explains that humans and aliens live in water areas. Or an area with temperature 20 to 40 degrees Celsius. It means alien can live on planets like earth outside our solar system.This is the picture:

 Al-Qur'an explains that:
1.       Human for the living on earth and alien beyond the earth (the heaven).
2.       Alien  live on water zone or planets like earth  with temperature 20 – 40 degree Celsius and outside our solar system.

The water zone of planet is key of alien.
What's the water zone of planet?
The water zone of planet is planet where organism or alien can live

By Muchsin Faisol Effendie

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