Sabtu, 05 Oktober 2013


Design of Maglev Motorcycle

Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a method of propulsion that uses magnetic levitation to propel vehicles with magnets rather than with wheels, axles and bearings. With maglev, a vehicle is levitated a short distance away from a guideway using magnets to create both lift and thrust. High-speed maglev trains promise dramatic improvements for human travel if widespread adoption occurs.[1]
Maglev trains move more smoothly and somewhat more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems. Their non-reliance on friction means that acceleration and deceleration can surpass that of wheeled transports, and they are unaffected by weather. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of the overall energy consumption;[2] most of the power is used to overcome air resistance (drag), as with any other high-speed form of transport. Although conventional wheeled transportation can go very fast, maglev allows routine use of higher top speeds than conventional rail, and this type holds the speed record for rail transportation. Vacuum tube train systems might hypothetically allow maglev trains to attain speeds in a different order of magnitude, but no such tracks have ever been built.
Compared to conventional wheeled trains, differences in construction affect the economics of maglev trains. With wheeled trains at very high speeds, the wear and tear from friction along with the concentrated pounding from wheels on rails accelerates equipment deterioration and prevents mechanically-based train systems from routinely achieving higher speeds.[3] Conversely, maglev tracks have historically been found to be much more expensive to construct, but require less maintenance and have low ongoing costs.
Despite decades-long research and development, there are presently only two commercial maglev transport systems in operation, with two others under construction.[4] In April 2004, Shanghai began commercial operations of the high-speed Transrapid system. In March 2005, Japan began operation of the relatively low-speed HSST "Linimo" line in time for the 2005 World Expo. In its first three months, the Linimo line carried over 10 million passengers. South Korea and the People's Republic of China are both building low-speed maglev lines of their own design, one in Beijing and the other at Seoul's Incheon Airport. Many maglev projects are controversial, and the technological potential, adoption prospects and economics of maglev systems have often been hotly debated. The Shanghai system has been accused of being a white elephant.[5]
In the public imagination, "maglev" often evokes the concept of an elevated monorail track with a linear motor. This can be misleading. While several maglev systems are monorail designs, not all maglevs use monorails,[24] and not all monorail trains use linear motors or magnetic levitation. Some railway transport systems incorporate linear motors but only use electromagnetism for propulsion, without actually levitating the vehicle. Such trains (which might also be monorail trains) are wheeled vehicles and not maglev trains.[25] Maglev tracks, monorail or not, can also be constructed at grade (i.e. not elevated). Conversely, non-maglev tracks, monorail or not, can be elevated too. Some maglev trains do incorporate wheels and function like linear motor-propelled wheeled vehicles at slower speeds but "take off" and levitate at higher speeds.[26][27]

MLX01 Maglev train Superconducting magnet Bogie
The term "maglev" refers not only to the vehicles, but to the railway system as well, specifically designed for magnetic levitation and propulsion. All operational implementations of maglev technology have had minimal overlap with wheeled train technology and have not been compatible with conventional rail tracks. Because they cannot share existing infrastructure, these maglev systems must be designed as complete transportation systems. The Applied Levitation SPM maglev system is inter-operable with steel rail tracks and would permit maglev vehicles and conventional trains to operate at the same time on the same right of way. MAN in Germany also designed a maglev system that worked with conventional rails, but it was never fully developed.[28]
There are two particularly notable types of maglev technology:
  • For electromagnetic suspension (EMS), electronically controlled electromagnets in the train attract it to a magnetically conductive (usually steel) track.
  • Electrodynamic suspension (EDS) uses superconducting electromagnets or strong permanent magnets which create a magnetic field that induces currents in nearby metallic conductors when there is relative movement which pushes and pulls the train towards the designed levitation position on the guide way.
Another experimental technology, which was designed, proven mathematically, peer reviewed, and patented, but is yet to be built, is the magnetodynamic suspension (MDS), which uses the attractive magnetic force of a permanent magnet array near a steel track to lift the train and hold it in place. Other technologies such as repulsive permanent magnets and superconducting magnets have seen some research.
Electromagnetic suspension
In current electromagnetic suspension (EMS) systems, the train levitates above a steel rail while electromagnets, attached to the train, are oriented toward the rail from below. The system is typically arranged on a series of C-shaped arms, with the upper portion of the arm attached to the vehicle, and the lower inside edge containing the magnets. The rail is situated between the upper and lower edges.
Magnetic attraction varies inversely with the cube of distance, so minor changes in distance between the magnets and the rail produce greatly varying forces. These changes in force are dynamically unstable – if there is a slight divergence from the optimum position, the tendency will be to exacerbate this, and complex systems of feedback control are required to maintain a train at a constant distance from the track, (approximately 15 millimeters (0.59 in)).[29][30]
The major advantage to suspended maglev systems is that they work at all speeds, unlike electrodynamic systems which only work at a minimum speed of about 30 km/h (19 mph). This eliminates the need for a separate low-speed suspension system, and can simplify the track layout as a result. On the downside, the dynamic instability of the system puts high demands on tolerance control of the track, which can offset, or eliminate this advantage. Laithwaite, highly skeptical of the concept, was concerned that in order to make a track with the required tolerances, the gap between the magnets and rail would have to be increased to the point where the magnets would be unreasonably large.[28] In practice, this problem was addressed through increased performance of the feedback systems, which allow the system to run with close tolerances.
Electrodynamic suspension

JR-Maglev EDS suspension is due to the magnetic fields induced either side of the vehicle by the passage of the vehicle's superconducting magnets.

EDS Maglev propulsion via propulsion coils
In electrodynamic suspension (EDS), both the guideway and the train exert a magnetic field, and the train is levitated by the repulsive and attractive force between these magnetic fields.[31] In some configurations, the train can be levitated only by repulsive force. In the early stages of JR-Maglev development in Miyazaki test track, a purely repulsive system was used instead of the later repulsive and attractive EDS system.[32] There is a misconception that the EDS system is purely a repulsive one, but that is not true. The magnetic field in the train is produced by either superconducting magnets (as in JR–Maglev) or by an array of permanent magnets (as in Inductrack). The repulsive and attractive force in the track is created by an induced magnetic field in wires or other conducting strips in the track. A major advantage of the EDS maglev systems is that they are naturally stable – minor narrowing in distance between the track and the magnets creates strong forces to repel the magnets back to their original position, while a slight increase in distance greatly reduces the repulsive force and again returns the vehicle to the right separation.[28] In addition, the attractive force varies in the opposite manner, providing the same adjustment effects. No feedback control is needed.
EDS systems have a major downside as well. At slow speeds, the current induced in these coils and the resultant magnetic flux is not large enough to support the weight of the train. For this reason, the train must have wheels or some other form of landing gear to support the train until it reaches a speed that can sustain levitation. Since a train may stop at any location, due to equipment problems for instance, the entire track must be able to support both low-speed and high-speed operation. Another downside is that the EDS system naturally creates a field in the track in front and to the rear of the lift magnets, which acts against the magnets and creates a form of drag. This is generally only a concern at low speeds (This is one of the reasons why JR abandoned a purely repulsive system and adopted the sidewall levitation system.[32]); at higher speeds the effect does not have time to build to its full potential and other forms of drag dominate.[28]
The drag force can be used to the electrodynamic system's advantage, however, as it creates a varying force in the rails that can be used as a reactionary system to drive the train, without the need for a separate reaction plate, as in most linear motor systems. Laithwaite led development of such "traverse-flux" systems at his Imperial College laboratory.[28] Alternatively, propulsion coils on the guideway are used to exert a force on the magnets in the train and make the train move forward. The propulsion coils that exert a force on the train are effectively a linear motor: an alternating current through the coils generates a continuously varying magnetic field that moves forward along the track. The frequency of the alternating current is synchronized to match the speed of the train. The offset between the field exerted by magnets on the train and the applied field creates a force moving the train forward. (Source: Wikipedia)

My Design 

This is my idea of maglev motorcycle. Which will be made motorcycle without chain, exhaust, engine and some other parts.
It's the future motorcycle.

Rabu, 02 Oktober 2013




There are theories which deal with the process of the creation of the universe. And in this letter I would like to write it according to what is said about it in the Koran. In this holy book, astronomy field dominates the discussion about physics. I found out that it is randomly discussed (there is no definite order of one discussion to next ones). That is why I have to pick some words or paragraphs and put them in certain order according to common sense and some physics laws.
One word in one paragraph or section may have many different meanings. And the key word in my discussion here is the word heaven (as sama). The phases of the creation of the universe are related to that word. And in it’s context, it’s interpreted and connected with astronomy. Misinterpretation may occur and it is merely caused by my own mistake of my insufficient capabilities in translations. For that reason, I welcome any constructive and I do hope that my explanation be useful for all of us.
Sincerely yours,
Muchsin Faisal Effendie
The word heaven (as sama) has both micro and macro sense. In term of micro sense, heaven means the smallest unit. While in broad sense, heaven is formed by it’s units. In other words, there are some levels of heaven in the universe. It can be clarified we follow: atmosphere, heavenly bodies and the galaxies.
Heaven which means atmosphere, in a narrow sense heaven means sky or layer which surround the earth. This meaning is found in the following:
“And We bring you rain down from heaven” (31:10)
There is still other paragraph which means a like. What is meant by the word heaven in the quotations above is cloud. This meaning is classified in another paragraph:
“And we come down from the cloud, the water which is pouring” (46:24)
According to geography what we know about atmosphere, cloud is exist in the troposphere layer. It is about 12 kilo meters high, while the cloud is usually about 2 kilo meters above the sea level.
To make sure that heaven means atmosphere, look at this quotation:
“Birds fly in heaven” (16:79)
“Good trees, the roots are strong, and the branch reaches the heaven” (14:24)
It is quite clear that heaven means atmosphere, because birds fly in the sky or atmosphere.
Heaven means heavenly bodies is higher than the first meaning above. Heavenly bodies may include stars, planets, comets or meteors. Heaven meaning heavenly bodies can be found in there paragraphs:
“Decorating the sky which is closes the decoration, the stars and the planets” (37:6)
I think what is by sky here is the sky which can be seen by naked eye, without using a telescope., because it is in the sky we can see the stars, planets or meteors. So, the right interpretation of the word heaven here is constellation of the stars. Where the star is the system with planets, meteors, comets, satellites and other heavenly bodies in it. We can call this a zodiac.
Heavenly means galaxy; galaxy is cluster of stars which can be billons. We, who live in this solar system is part of our galaxy – The Milky Way. Heaven which means galaxy is found in the following:
“And actually We have create clusters of stars (buruuj) in the heaven” (15:16)
“For heaven’s shake with it’s stars” (85:1)
In astronomy, the word buruuj means cluster or groups of star. So, group of star is nothing but galaxy.
Many things which happen in these worlds are merely repetition of what have taken place in the past. We often notice and feel the cycle of world’s phenomenon. And so is the history of the universe.
“Like what We have done when we start the first creation, We will repeat that again (nu’iiduhu)” (21:104)
Nu’iiduhu is derived from the ‘aada, which means ‘aada : raja’a : again or repeated. It is just like when someone goes, and then come back again. If we draw a line from the time he went and the time he came back. It will form a closed curve. The sentence which contains that word is ‘iidu sanawiyyu tadzaariyyu which means birthday. If we consider the first birthday as the beginning which is followed by the second one plus the happenings which occur between them, and if we draw a line, it is very hard to imagine this life as straight line. Because the beginning finally meets with the end. This life is best illustrated as a circle.
When we look at a circle, we can not decide which is the beginning and which is the end. In relation with the word nu’iiduhu, it is interpreted as the repetition of the end into the beginning.
Circle is the closest in meaning with the word nu’iiduhu, a part of the nature phenomenon like water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle. That water undergoes a cycle is obvious. Water in may different places will vaporize; continuous evaporation especially during dry season will form clouds. Cloud will form rain, and water will come down to the earth again.
That’s why I put the end of the world (the judgment day) and the beginning of the world with the hell with it’s fire between them as the first phase. As I have said before that last is the first.

PHASE I: The end of the world (the doomsday) is marked by the destruction of the universe; it is this phase which brings the universe into beginning when it was born for the first time. Then what will happen if the stars shattered, smashed (totally destructed) or if they ran out of fuel.
So you must wait until the heaven brings the real could (bidukhaanin mubin)” (44:10)
Dukhaanin comes from the word dakhina, for example: dakhkhan: smoking. With the meaning in the translation above we can in for that as smoke, not cloud. Since smoke comes from vaporation. Smoke indicates that there is heat. The word in the sentence dakhanal ghubaru: satha’a: flying all around. Smoke is closer in meaning with dukhaanin, compare with could or fog which is relatively static, and it moves only in certain directions.
If we combine the word mubiin with dukhaanin, we can interpret them as energy. Energy is related to motion and heat. That’s why energy is the closest meaning of the word.

In Einstein’s Theory we can see that energy can be changed into mass. In an endoderm reaction, energy is required to form material.

PHASE 2: energy formed a giant proton ball. Like I have stated before that energy can be changed into mass in a reaction. At last, according to the astronomies, this proton ball exploded. The explosion was known as the big bang. There are many paragraphs which explain about this giant proton ball, such as:
“Into a very hot water (hamaimii)” (40:72)
“Burning in the hell (sa’iiran)” (25:11)
“For them, above are layers of fire (zhulalun) and so are below (zhulalun)” (39:16)
“For them clothes (tsiyaabun) from the hell fire” (22:19)
Hamiimi comes from the word hamma which may mean hammal maa: sakhina: lava. We can image that if a ball like hot lava rolls, everything on its way will be burnt too. If only a part of such things is lava, we possibly can find it on the earth. But if all of it is hot lava, we can only find it on the sun or stars.
Sa’iiran comes from the word sa’ara, in sentence tasa’ara wasta’arannaar means burning (giving out flames). From both of that word, we can imagine how hell looks like; lava like place which can destroy everything in it with its bright light.
Zhulalun comes from the word zhalla, for zhallala wa azhalla: alqaa alaikii zhillahu: to cover (something from heat, sun etc). For example, if someone uses an umbrella, he will be protected against sunlight. If something is covered by hot lava, all around it that thing will became hot lava too. And azh zhalahu means water under the tree which is protected against sunshine. We can imagine how big the tree is, how thick the leaves are so that sunlight can’t reach it, only reaches the tree.
We can also imagine how big the burning lava is so that whatever is put inside it can’t be seen. Everything that whatever into it no matter how big it is will dissolve and what we can see is just the burning lava. We will see what that burning lava really is from the word tsiyaabun from the word tsaaba, for tsaabannas: ijtama’u : gather. If we combine it with the previous word, we can interpret that it is the origin or union. What is meant by union here is the union of the galaxies. Even if we put all the galaxies in it. All we can see is just it. It here is the giant proton ball in which is like the sun or star and which can cover all the galaxies. As stated in the sentence matsaabal bir meaning a wall surrounding a well. So that we can understand that above all the proton ball is a giant ball from which galaxies are born. But why should proton is first? Not there particles or other elements with more atoms mass. If elements which have more atoms mass existed first, then fist of all protons, electron and neutron have to be there first to compose that element. So, it’s understandable that proton (which is composed by quarks) was formed fist.

PHASE 3: in this phase, proto galaxies are born as the result of the big bang. A giant proton ball with billions of galaxies in it was formed, in the phase before. We can’t image how big it is, there is nothing which can be compared in size with it, not even the sun. If a star explodes, it would form a supernova. But if this a giant proton ball exploded, it would form an ultra nova. In astronomy, the explosion is known as the big bang. Signs of the centre of this explosion or the centre of the universe have been stated in the following quotations:
“A shelter which has three branches (syu’abin) which does not cover and does not reject the hell fire. Actually hell gives out (tarmi), a spark as big and tall as a palace. As if it were cattle of yellow (shufrun jamal)” (77:30-32)
Tarmi comes from the word rama, for ramasy syaa:thatrahahu: throw. While ramassahma ‘anil gausi (alaihi): let out, shoot off (like a narrow from a bow). What is let out in explosion is a giant spark. How it looks like is described as a parade of yellow camels.
Shurun is derived from shafara, for shafar: shauwata binnafhi min syafataihi: whistle and shafarattu’ban: fahha: means hiss, sizzle. The whistling or hissing sound of the spark shows that the proto galaxy exploded and formed proto stars.
The nature of galaxies which is symbolized by spark is explained by syu’abin, which comes from the word sya’aba, for sya’abal qaum means parting, scattered. Sya’sbabashaahiba: baa’adahu: stay away. From the different forms of the word syu’aba, it can be explained that all galaxies moved away from each other. The galaxies are divided into three group’s ellipse galaxies, spiral galaxies and irregular forms. It is in according with the explanation “a shelter which has three branches’ above. The orbit of the galaxies can be explained from:
“And the root (assaqfi) which is heightened” (52:5)
“And the galaxies (as sama), how it is heightened (rufiat)” (88:18)
Assaqfi is derived from the word saqafa, for saqifa: high curved. After the explosion, the galaxies orbits are not straight lines but curved. I think it is because of the galaxies rotation and because of gravity of the centre of the universe which makes their rotation curved or not straight.
Rufiat is derived from rafa’a, for rafa’a: lift. Rafa’alama: raise (a flag). Rafa’al haditsa: salsalah ila qaailahul awwali: connect something with it’s source.
If we change the flag with the galaxies and the source with the centre of the universe. It is clear that galaxies moves away from it’s centre (expanded).
How the centre of the universe looks like, is derived in paragraph:
“Actually zaqqum tree is tree (syajaratun) which comes out from the bottom (ashli) the hell”
Ashli comes from the word ashala, for ashiyyu which means the beginning, at first, something which happened before, rasakha ashalat: have roots, ashlu: man syau: origin.
Interpretation of that paragraph is about something which exist, before the universe exists and as the source of the universe. Why the centre of the universe is described as has roots? Roots here mean something which ties something, together as the galaxies are tied together. Then the word syajararsy syais: rabathahu: tie, syajrau: ajmatu: forest, gather. So, it can be understood, that after the big bang, proto galaxies which is next to the centre of the universe are tied and are effected by strong gravity so, they are like a whirl in the centre of the universe.

PHASE 4: If a proto galaxy exploded, it will form proto stars. And if stars (which may have mass billions of that of the sun) explode, it will from hyper nova. That’s what happen when a proto galaxy which consists of billions of star explode. The process of the formation of galaxies from proto galaxy is described in the following paragraph:
“And We arrange (banainaaha) the heaven (galaxies) with Our power” (51:47)
“And above you, We built (syidaadaan) seven strong buildings” (78:12)
Banainaaha comes from the word bana, for the sentence abna fulaanan: build a house. Bunayyaatuth thariqi: junction from a big into many small ones. Banaatul ardli: auhaarush shaghiira: brook. Ibnuth tahud: ash shada: echo.
To form or make a galaxy, a very powerful proto galaxy explosion is needed. This explosion occurs because the proto galaxy, which mass billions of the mass of the sun become unstably, and form a curved line 9orbit), it moves unsteadily. It can be seen clearly in a galaxy high has a spiral form. The “small roads” in the quotation above means collection of billions of stars.
Syidaadaan comes from the word syadda, for syaddasy syaia: rabatahu: to tie, al masyduud: something which is pulled, tied tightly. Asyadda: balagha asyudda: become mature 9in age and mentally)


PHASE 5: The formation of proto planets from proto star. There are many theory dealing with how was formed; from the classical theory like the theory twin star, theory of tide to the modern theory like condensation theory.
“That the sun and the earth are coherent. They are close (ratqaan). Then We put them away from each other (fafataqnaahumma)” (21:30)
Ratqaan is derived from rataqa, for rataqa tsauba: to sew, to patch; rataqasy syaia: saddahu wa aghlaqahu: to close, plug up. From this explanation we can see that the sun or star and the earth were composed from the same material.
“Who create the seven skies, ad the earth is also like that (mitslahuna)”(65:12)
Mitslahuna is derived from the word matsala, for matsala wa maatsala: syaabah: alike, resemble. Matsalar rajalu: moves from ils place. Matsala: lathaa bil ardli: stick on the ground). Watamattsala bilaadahu fii bilaadin ukhraa: an syakh shaau fii haflatin: represent.
The sun and earth was the same, if we them from their shape and their elements. Both have rotation and revolution. Planet is formed only by a small part of the proto star (mass of the Jupiter is 1/1000 of the sun). Then planets then moves, but they are still “tied”. Tied in the solar system. The dismissal of the planets from the sun is explained in the following:
“And then the earth is thrown (dahaaha)”
Dahaaha is derived from the word dahaa, for dahaal bathnu: big, puffed out belly (abdomen). Dahaal hajara biyadihi: to throw.
If we compare our body with the body of the pro star, and the puffed out belly as the part of the proto star which is puffed out, we will understand that it is that part which will become the proto planet; which later thrown away and moves on its orbits. The dismissal of the proto planet from the proto star will be explained as follows.
Faftaqnahumaa is derived from the word fataqa, for fataqa wa fataqasy syaia: divide, fataqats tsauba naqadla khiyaatha tahu: to tear sewn clothes. Aftaqa qarnusy syamsi: sun which comes out of the cloud.
It is clear that there is a very strong gravity on the outermost part of the proto star. The gravity then makes a part of the proto star to lump, and it was separated from the proto star. It was later known as proto planet. There is clear distortion between what is stated in the classical theory the formation of the planet is in influenced by other stars.

PHASE 6: The formation of solar system or star system as smallest unit of galaxy. It begins as the surface of the planet gets colds and it becomes solid, accompanied with the stars which begin to shine.
“Which has created seven layers of skies (thibaaqaan)” (67:13)
Thibaaqaan is derived from the word thabiqa for thabiqa wa athbaqal baaba: aqfalahu : to cover, to close. Thabbaqasy syaiu: ‘amma: evenly. Ath thabaqaru: assaaffatu: layer.
In the previous phases, the materials that compose the planets, stars and sun are the same that is hydrogen ball. But because their tiny mass, the hydrogen undergoes a very rapid reaction, and it change into iron. So, it’s understandable that the hydrogen reaction into iron in the proto planet goes much faster than the proto star. The fusion reaction of the hydrogen into the heavier substances makes the proto planet get colder. By the time iron produced, there are other compounds produced as a result of that reaction. Because the outmost layer (surface) is much colder than in the centre, the compounds later will form rocks. Actually, the planets also shine, not as bright as star of course, if it’s surface on the outermost part which consist of rocks and soil are omitted.
By Muchsin Faisol Effendie